Geology, geography and global energy

Scientific and Technical Journal

Geoecological assessment of the state of the Volga River in the Lower Volga region

2022. №2, pp. 74-84

Karabaeva Altynganym Z. - РЎandidate of Sciences (Geographical), Associate Professor, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia

Bikchuraeva Arina I. - student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia

Yuyukov Sergey S. - student, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan, Russia

The article deals with the water fund of the Astrakhan region, which is represented, respectively, by a set of water bodies, where the hydrological regime is determined by the Volga River. It was revealed that in the lower reaches the Volga River is divided into a number of branches, channels forming a delta. The change in the hydrological regime of the river network of the Volga in the Lower Volga region, associated with a huge anthropogenic load and a decrease in the Volga runoff over the past ten years, has led to irreversible consequences of changes in the natural environment of this region, which is the most important reason for the intensification of natural environmental and social transformations. The generalized data of long-term observations of the water quality of the Volga River made it possible to assess the main trends in water pollution in the region under study. Due to the accelerated process of industrialization and urbanization over the past decades, the Volga river network has been experiencing a colossal anthropogenic load (discharge of liquid industrial and household substances into surface waters that have not been cleaned from chemical agents; local accidents at oil and chemical industries; washout of substances from agricultural fields during snowmelt and rains; organic pollution caused by the natural decomposition of animals and plants), as a result of which the degree of pollution of the water area of the Volga river in the Astrakhan region has increased. The constant increase in demand for water resources, their use as a priority source of drinking water for the population and in the main sectors of economic activity determined the relevance of this article. The purpose of the work is to assess the state of the water area of the Volga River as a result of the impact on it of the main pollutants discharged on the territory of the Astrakhan region during the flood period and after the end of the flood.

Key words: Lower Volga region, Astrakhan region, water area of the Volga river, anthropogenic load, environmental monitoring, pollutants, natural water