Geology, geography and global energy

Scientific and Technical Journal


2021. №2, pp. 145-152

Stolyarova Elena M. - Astrakhan State University

Vaychulis German V. - Astrakhan State University

The relevance of the work. At the moment, a stable trend has formed in soil science, according to which the soil is considered and recognized not only as a result that was achieved as a result of the process of soil formation, but also simultaneously as a multifunctional natural structure, which is of colossal importance in terms of the formation of existing landscapes and newly formed and the proper functioning of the ecosystem as such. Purpose of work. Comprehensive and complete analysis of soil as the main geoecological factor shaping landscapes. Methodology of work. Analysis of scientific literature on this topic, synthesis, system-structural method. Method of comparative analysis. Results of work. The article discusses the main ecological functions of soils: global (atmospheric, hydrospheric, lithospheric, general biosphere) and biogeocenotic (ecosystem). The most important biogeocenotic functions of soils are determined by the physical, physicochemical, and chemical properties of soils. It is noted that the physical properties of soils determine such functions as habitat, living space of soil organisms and plants; chemical properties as a source of nutrients and energy; physicochemical properties such as sorption of mineral and organic substances, microorganisms, enzymes, water. Soils in biogeocenoses also perform informational functions, the functions of preserving and maintaining biodiversity, sanitary, etc. Conclusions. Consideration of various categories of soil functions in the system of its biogeocenotic, landscape and biospheric interactions allows us to conclude that the ecological multifunctionality of the soil is its fundamental feature.

Key words: Soil, multifunctional system, the role of soil cover in the biosphere, biogeocenotic and global functions, habitat, biological circulation of substances and energy, biological productivity