Geology, geography and global energy

Scientific and Technical Journal

Polyvariety approach to the study soils of urban areas

2015. №4, pp. 69-76

Zimovets P.A. - Deputy Director of the Campaign for Waste Management, Ltd "Tora", 66 Pushkin st., Volzhsky, Volgograd Region, 414000, Russian Federation,

Barmin A.N. - D.Sc. in Geography, Professor, Head of the department, Astrakhan State University, 1 Shaumyan sq., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation,

Valov M.V. - Post-graduate student, Astrakhan State University, 1 Shaumyan sq., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation,

Barmina Ye.A. - Post-graduate student, Astrakhan State University, 1 Shaumyan sq., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation

Urban soil is ally modified soil anthropogenic that have created as a result of human activity surface layer more than 50 cm, obtained by mixing, spread or burial urbanogenically origin material, including construction and household waste. Soil forming rock of urban soils is presented man-made by or blended lands; in the upper horizons the inclusion of the household and construction waste present; pollution of urban soils with heavy metals and oil products are frequent. The soils in the city develop with the same factors of soil formation that natural undisturbed soil, but in the cities the anthropogenic factors predominate over natural factors. Features of soil-building processes in urban areas are as follows: soil devastation, as a result of the movement of natural horizons, deformation of the soil structure and the of soil horizons; low content of organic matter - basic strukture - made component of the soil; decrease of population size and activity of soil microorganisms and invertebrates as a result of deficiency of organic substance. The review of the modern scientific publications devoted to urban soils, their genesis, diagnostics and systematization is presented in article. The existing approaches to a problem of definition and classification of city soils are considered. Based on the analysis of numerous works the conclusion is drawn on relevance, expediency and the practical importance of an urban soil science as scientific direction and need of expansion of geography of regional researches.

Key words: урбанизированные территории, городские почвы, природные почвы, урбанозёмы, классификация почв, urban areas, urban soil, natural soil, urbanozems, soil classification