Geology, geography and global energy

Scientific and Technical Journal

Definition of geoecological borders of distribution comb of Mnemiopsis as potential threat for the biodiversity and efficiency in the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea

2014. №2, pp. 105-114

Klimov Fedor V. - C.Sc. in Biology, Head of the analytical department, Kazakhstan Agency of Applied Ecology, 70A Amangelda st., Almaty, 050012, Republic of Kazakhstan,

Krupa Yelena G. - D.Sc. in Biology, Chief Specialist, Institute of Zoology, 93 Al-Farabi av., Almaty, 050060, Republic of Kazakhstan,

Melnikov Valeriy A. - C.Sc. in Biology, Head of Marine Research, Kazecoproject, 123 Klochkov st., Almaty, 050012, Republic of Kazakhstan,

Resnyanskaya Anna S. - C.Sc. in Chemistry, Head of Department, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering, 18Р° Tatischev st., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation,

The aim is to define the geoecological boundaries of Mnemiopsis, as an object is posing a potential threat to the biodiversity and productivity in the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea. Mnemiopsis leidyi has a negative impact on the diversity and productivity of cenoses of the Middle and South Caspian. The increase in the number of Mnemiopsis leidyi leads to reduction in species diversity of zooplankton and affects the pelagic fish reproduction. The population structure of Mnemiopsis leidyi and his seasonal distribution are considered in article. and factors limiting its spread in the Kazakhstan part of the Caspian Sea are described in this article. According to researches Mnemiopsis leidyi was registered in August with minor quantitative indicators, but growing in numbers and biomass in the subsequent months in the Middle Caspian Sea. This object appeared near the southern border of the North-East Caspian with lower number. The reproduction of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis is timed to the area above the Western shelf of the South Caspian. Mnemiopsis leidyi was brought to the Caspian Sea by ballast waters. It was first registered in the beginning of November 1999 while underwater video shooting on the banks located on the border of the Middle and southern Caspian at the depths 29-32 m, at a temperature of 16,5-19,5 ºС and salinity 11,76-13,07 ‰. By 2000, Mnemiopsis was settled almost the whole water area of the Caspian Sea. The isolation of the Caspian Sea, its depleted species composition, compared with the Black and Mediterranean seas as well as the absence of predators and parasites of Mnemiopsis in the Caspian Sea determined the favorable conditions for formation and development of a new population of Mnemiopsis leidyi.

Key words: Казахстанский сектор Каспийского моря, мнемиопсис, систематика, структура популяции, распространение, видовое разнообразие, увеличение численности, биомасса, зоопланктон, Северный и Средний Каспий, кормовая база, Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea, mnem